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Conditional Sentences atau kalimat pendandaian terdiri dari dua jenis, yaitu real (nyata) dan unreal (tidak nyata). Pengandaian nyata adalah bentuk pengandaian dimana pengandaian tersebut dapat menjadi kenyataan, sedangkan pengandaian tidak nyata adalah bentuk pengandaian yang tidak mungkin akan jadi kenyataan karena beberapa sebab seperti dijelaskan di bawah ini:

Conditional Sentences terbagi-bagi lagi seperti akan kami jelaskan di bawah ini:


PRESENT CONDITIONALS

Present Real Conditional
RUMUS
  • [If / When ... Simple Present ..., ... Simple Present ...]
  • [... Simple Present ... if / when ... Simple Present ...]
KEGUNAAN

Present Real Conditional digunakan untuk membicarakan tentang apa yang secara normal Anda lakukan dalam situasi kehidupan normal.

Contoh:
  • If I go to a friend's house for dinner, I usually take a bottle of wine or some flowers.
  • When I have a day off from work, I often go to the beach.
  • If the weather is nice, she walks to work.
  • Jerry helps me with my homework when he has time.
  • I read if there is nothing on TV.
  • A: What do you do when it rains?
    B: I stay at home.
  • A: Where do you stay if you go to Sydney?
    B: I stay with my friends near the harbor.
If / When

"if" dan "when" digunakan dalam Present Real Conditional. "if" digunakan untuk menjelaskan tentang sesuatu yang jarang terjadi, sedangkan "when" digunakan untuk menjelaskan tentang kejadian yang sudah biasa atau sering terjadi.

Contoh:
  • When I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach.
    I regularly have days off from work.
  • If I have a day off from work, I usually go to the beach.
    I rarely have days off from work.
Present Unreal Conditional

RUMUS
  • [If ... Simple Past ..., ... would + verb ...]
  • [... would + verb ... if ... Simple Past ...]
USE

Present Unreal Conditional digunakan untuk menjelaskan tentang apa yang akan terjadi dalam situasi imajenasi (mengandai-andai).

Contoh:
  • If I owned a car, I would drive to work. But I don't own a car.
  • She would travel around the world if she had more money. But she doesn't have much money.
  • I would read more if I didn't watch so much TV.
  • Mary would move to Japan if she spoke Japanese.
  • If they worked harder, they would earn more money.
  • A: What would you do if you won the lottery?
    B: I would buy a house.
  • A: Where would you live if you moved to the U.S.?
    B: I would live in Seattle.
PENGECUALIAN If I were ...

Dalam Present Unreal Conditional, bentuk "was" tidak digunakan. Gunakanlah "were" sebagai gantinya untuk semua subjek. Namun, dalam percakapan sehari-hari, "was" sering digunakan.

Contoh:
  • If he were French, he would live in Paris.
  • If she were rich, she would buy a yacht.
  • I would play basketball if I were taller.
  • I would buy that computer if it were cheaper.
  • I would buy that computer if it was cheaper. Not Correct (But often said in conversation.)
PENTING, HANYA GUNAKAN "If"

Hanya kata "if" digunakan dalam Present Unreal Conditional karena kita sedang membicarakan sesuatu yang tidak nyata atau hanya sebatas imajenasi belaka. "When" tidak bisa digunakan.

Contoh:
  • I would buy that computer when it were cheaper. Not Correct
  • I would buy that computer if it were cheaper. Correct

Conditional Dengan Modals

Ada beberapa Modals yang digunakan dalam Conditional seperti tersebut di bawah ini:
  1. would + can = could
  2. would + shall = should
  3. would + may = might
Kata "can," "shall" dan "may" tidak dapat digunakan dengan "would." Kata ini digunakan dalam bentuk khusus.

Contoh:
  • If I went to Egypt, I would can learn Arabic. Not Correct
  • If I went to Egypt, I could learn Arabic. Correct
  • If she had time, she would may go to the party. Not Correct
  • If she had time, she might go to the party. Correct
Kata "could," should," "might" dan "ought to" sudah termasuk dalam conditional, jadi Anda tidak perlu menggabungkannya dengan "would."

Contoh:
  • If I had more time, I would could exercise after work. Not Correct
  • If I had more time, I could exercise after work. Correct
  • If he invited you, you really would should go. Not Correct
  • If he invited you, you really should go. Correct
PAST CONDITIONALS
Past Real Conditional

RUMUS
  • [If / When ... Simple Past ..., ... Simple Past ...]
  • [... Simple Past... if / when ... Simple Past ...]
PENGGUNAAN

Past Real Conditional menggambarkan apa yang biasanya Anda lakukan dalam waktu tertentu di situasi nyata kehidupan Anda. Hal ini menjelaskan bahwa kebiasaan Anda tadi telah berubah dan Anda biasanya tidak lakukan akhir-akhir ini.

Contoh:
  • If I went to a friend's house for dinner, I usually took a bottle of wine or some flowers. I don't do that anymore.
  • When I had a day off from work, I often went to the beach. Now, I never get time off.
  • If the weather was nice, she often walked to work. Now, she usually drives.
  • Jerry always helped me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn't do that anymore.
  • A: What did you usually do when it rained?
    B: I usually stayed at home.
CATATAN

Bentuk "used to" menggambarkan suatu ide bahwa sesuatu yang merupakan kebiasaan lama telah berhenti dan tidak lagi dilakukan di masa lalu. Bentuk ini bisanya digunakan dalam kalimat Past Real Conditional untuk menekankan bahwa dulunya itu adalah kebiasaan.

Contoh:
  • If I went to a friend's house for dinner, I used to take a bottle of wine or some flowers. I don't do that anymore.
  • When I had a day off from work, I used to go to the beach. Now, I never get time off.
  • If the weather was nice, she used to walk to work. Now, she usually drives.
  • Jerry used to help me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn't do that anymore.
  • A: What did you usually do when it rained?
    B: I used to stay at home.
If / When

"if" dan "when" digunakan dalam Past Real Conditional. "if" digunakan untuk menjelaskan tentang suatu perkerjaan atau aktivitas yang jarang terjadi di masa lampau. Sedangkan "when" digunakan untuk menjelaskan suatu aktivitas dulunya sering terjadi.

Contoh:
  • When I had a day off from work, I usually went to the beach.
  • I regularly had days off from work.
  • If I had a day off from work, I usually went to the beach.
  • I rarely had days off from work.
Past Unreal Conditional

RUMUS

  • [If ... Past Perfect ..., ... would have + past participle ... ]
  • [... would have + past participle ... if ... Past Perfect ...]
PENGGUNAAN

Past Unreal Conditional digunakan untuk membicarakan situasi yang menjadi imajenasi di masa lampau.

Contoh:
  • If I had owned a car, I would have driven to work. But I didn't own one, so I took the bus.
  • She would have traveled around the world if she had had more money. But she didn't have much money, so she never traveled.
  • I would have read more as a child if I hadn't watched so much TV. Unfortunately, I did watch a lot of TV, so I never read for entertainment.
  • Mary would have gotten the job and moved to Japan if she had studied Japanese in school instead of French.
  • If Jack had worked harder, he would have earned more money. Unfortunately, he was lazy and he didn't earn much.
  • A: What would you have done if you had won the lottery last week?
    B: I would have bought a house.
  • A: What city would you have chosen if you had decided to move to the United States?
    B: I would have chosen Seattle.
Penggunaan "If"

"if" digunakan dalam Past Unreal Conditional sedangkan "when" tidak dapat digunakan dalam bentuk ini.

Contoh:
  • I would have bought that computer when it had been cheaper. Not Correct
  • I would have bought that computer if it had been cheaper. Correct
Conditional Dengan Modal Verbs

Perhatikan bentuk Modals dalam Conditional di bawah ini:
  1. would have + can = could have
  2. would have + shall = should have
  3. would have + may = might have
Kata "can," "shall" dan "may" tidak dapat digunakan dengan "would have."

Contoh:
  • If I had gone to Egypt, I could have learned Arabic.
  • If she had had time, she might have gone to the party.
Kata "could," should," "might" dan "ought to" sudah termasuk dalam Conditional, jadi tidak perlu Anda gabungkan dengan "would have."

Contoh:
  • If I had had more time, I could have exercised after work.
  • If he had invited you, you might have gone.
FUTURE CONDITIONALS
Future Real Conditional

RUMUS
  • [If / When ... Simple Present ..., ... Simple Future ...]
  • [... Simple Future ... if / when ... Simple Present ...]
PENGGUNAAN

Future Real Conditional menggambarkan apa yang Anda pikirkan akan terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang. Bentuk ini berbeda dengan bentuk Real Conditional karena Anda tidak tahu apa yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang. Walaupun bentuk ini disebut dengan "real", Anda biasanya membayangkan atau menebak apa yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang. Disebut dengan "real" karena apa yang kita bayangkan atau pikirkan bisa saja terjadi di masa yang akan datang.

Contoh:
  • If I go to my friend's house for dinner tonight, I will take a bottle of wine or some flowers.
  • I am still not sure if I will go to his house or not.
  • When I have a day off from work, I am going to go to the beach.
  • I have to wait until I have a day off.
  • If the weather is nice, she is going to walk to work.
  • It depends on the weather.
  • Jerry will help me with my homework when he has time.
  • I have to wait until he has time.
  • I am going to read if there is nothing on TV.
  • It depends on the TV schedule.
  • A: What are you going to do if it rains?
    B: I am going to stay at home.

If / When

"if" dan "when" digunakan untuk Future Real Conditional, namun penggunaannya berbeda dengan bentuk Real Conditional. Dalam Future Real Conditional, "if" digunakan utnuk menjelaskan apa yang Anda tidak ketahui apa yang akan terjadi, sedangkan "when" digunakan untuk menjelaskan suatu kejadian yang Anda ketahui akan terjadi pada waktu tertentu.

Contoh:
  • When you call me, I will give you the address.
  • You are going to call me later, and at that time, I will give you the address.
  • If you call me, I will give you the address.
  • If you want the address, you can call me.
Future Unreal Conditional

BENTUK Ke 1 (Bentuk Yang Paling Umum)
  • [If ... Simple Past ..., ... would + verb ...]
  • [... would + verb ... if ... Simple Past ...]
PENGGUNAAN

Future Unreal Conditional digunakan untuk membicarakan tentang situasi yang kita bayangkan di masa yang akan datang. Bentuk ini tidak sama dengan Future Real Conditional karena apapun bisa terjadi di masa yang akan datang. Bentuk ini hanya digunakan ketika si pembicara perlu untuk menekankan bahwa sesuatu itu tidak mungkin. Karena bentuk ini hampir sama dengan Present Unreal Conditional, banyak native speaker lebih suka menggunakan bentuk ke 2 di bawah

Contoh:
  • If I had a day off from work next week, I would go to the beach.
    I don't have a day off from work.
  • I am busy next week. If I had time, I would come to your party.
    I can't come.
  • Jerry would help me with my homework tomorrow if he didn't have to work.
    He does have to work tomorrow.
BENTUK Ke 2
  • [If ... were + present participle ..., ... would be + present participle ...]
  • [... would be + present participle ... if ... were + present participle ...]
PENGGUNAAN

Bentuk ke 2 dari Future Unreal Conditional juga digunakan untuk membayangkan apa yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang. Native speaker lebih suka menggunakan bentuk ini dari pada bentuk ke 1 untuk menekankan pengandaian di masa yang akan datang. Perhatikan contoh kalimat di bawah ini bahwa bentuk ini dapat digunakan dalam bentuk if-clause, hasil, ATAU Kedua bagian kalimat.

Contoh:
  • If I were going to Fiji next week, I would be taking my scuba diving gear with me. In if-clause dan hasil.
    I am not going to go to Fiji and I am not going to take my scuba gear with me.
  • If I were not visiting my grandmother tomorrow, I would help you study. Dalam if-clause.
    I am going to visit my grandmother tomorrow.
  • I am busy next week. If I had time, I would be coming to your party. Hasilnya
    I am not going to come to your party.
BENTUK Ke 3
  • [If ... were going to + verb ..., ... would be + present participle ...]
  • [... would be + present participle ... if ... were going to + verb ...]
PENGGUNAAN

Bentuk ke 3 dari Future Unreal Conditional merupakan bentuk variasi dari bentuk ke 2 yang juga digunakan untuk menjelaskan situasi yang kita bayangkan di masa yang akan datang. Perhatikan bahwa bentuk ini hanya berbeda dengan bentuk ke-2 dalam hal "if-clause". Native speaker menggunakan bentuk ke-3 ini untuk menekankan bahwa bentuk conditional ini merupakan rencana atau prediksi.

Contoh:
  • If I were going to go to Fiji next week, I would be taking my scuba diving gear with me. (I am not going to go to Fiji and I am not going to take my scuba gear with me.)
  • If I were not going to visit my grandmother tomorrow, I would help you study. (I am going to visit my grandmother tomorrow)

Penggunaan "If"

"if" hanya digunakan dalam Past Unreal Conditional karena apa yang kita diskusikan adalah situasi yang kita bayangkan. "when" tidak dapat digunakan.

Contoh:
  • I would buy that computer tomorrow when it were cheaper. Not Correct
  • I would buy that computer tomorrow if it were cheaper. Correct
Conditional with Modal Verbs

Perhatikan beberapa bentuk penggabungan Modals Verbs di bawah ini:
  1. would + can = could
  2. would + shall = should
  3. would + may = might
Kata "can," "shall" dan "may" dapat digunakan dengan "would."

Contoh:
  • If I went to Egypt next year, I would can learn Arabic. Unfortunately, that's not possible. Not Correct
  • If I went to Egypt next year, I could learn Arabic. Unfortunately, that's not possible. Correct
Kata "could," should," "might" dan "ought to" tidak perlu digabungkan dengan "would."

Contoh:
  • If I didn't have to work tonight, I would could go to the fitness center. Not Correct
  • If I didn't have to work tonight, I could go to the fitness center. Correct
Future Real Conditional vs. Future Unreal Conditional

Untuk membantu Anda memahami perbedaan antara Future Real Conditional dan Future Unreal Conditional, bandingkan kalimat-kalimat di bawah ini

Contoh:
  • If you help me move tomorrow, I will buy you dinner. Future Real Conditional (I don't know if you can help me)
  • If you helped me move tomorrow, I would buy you dinner. Future Unreal Conditional (You can't help me, or you don't want to help me)
CONTINUOUS CONDITIONALS

Present Unreal Conditional + Continuous

RUMUS
  • If-clause: [were + present participle]
  • Result: [would be + present participle]
PENGGUNAAN

Present Unreal Conditional + Continuous digunakan untuk membicarakan tentang situasi yang kita bayangkan akan sedang terjadi.

Contoh Dalam if-clause:
  • If the sun were shining, I would go to the beach. (Unfortunately, it is raining so I can't go)
  • If Sam were sitting here, we would be able to ask him the question ourselves. (But Sam is not sitting here. He is somewhere else)
  • We would be able to go sailing if the wind were blowing. (But there is no wind, so we can't go sailing)
Contoh Dalam Hasil:
  • If I were in Hawaii, I would be lying on the beach. (But I am not in Hawaii)
  • If my grandfather were here, he would be talking about the war. (But he is not here)
  • I would be rafting down the Colorado River right now if my leg weren't broken. (But my leg is broken, so I am not there)
Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous

RUMUS
  • If-clause: [had been + present participle]
  • Result: [would have been + present participle]
PENGGUNAAN

Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous digunakan untuk menjelaskan situasi yang kita bayangkan sedang terjadi pada waktu tertentu di masa yang lalu.

Contoh Dalam if-clause:
  • If I had been talking to him when he said that, I would have punched him in the face. (But I wasn't talking to him when he said that)
  • If he had been standing near the house when the wall collapsed, it would have killed him. (Luckily, he moved away before the wall fell)
Contoh Dalam Hasil:
  • If you had gone to his house last night, he would have been sitting on his couch in front of the TV. (But you didn't go to his house, so you didn't see what he was doing)
  • If she had missed her train, he would have been waiting for her at the station for hours. (Luckily, she caught her train and he didn't have to wait)
CATATAN: Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous dapat digunakan seperti Past Continuous dalam situasi yang kita bayangkan untuk menekankan interupsi atau aktivitas parallel di masa yang lampau.

Contoh Dalam if-clause:
  • If James had been crossing the street when the car ran the red light, it would have hit him.
  • If Tom had been studying while Becky was making dinner, he would have finished his homework early and they could have gone to the movie.
Contoh Dalam Hasil:
  • If James hadn't stopped to tie his shoe, he would have been crossing the street when the car ran the red light.
  • If you had gone to their house last night, Bob would have been reading the newspaper, Nancy would have been talking on the phone and the kids would have been watching TV. They always do the same things.
CATATAN: Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous dapat juga digunakan seperti Present Perfect Continuous atau Past Perfect Continuous untuk membayangkan situasi yang bertujuan untuk menekankan durasi suatu aktivitas.

Contoh Dalam if-clause:
  • Scott said he had been studying Greek for more than five years. If he had been studying the language that long, I think he would have been able to interpret for us at the airport.
  • Sarah claimed she had been waiting in the rain for more than twenty minutes by the time we arrived, but she wasn't even wet. If she had been waiting that long, I think she would have been totally drenched by the time we arrived.
Contoh Dalam Hasil:
  • Terry's plane arrived ahead of schedule. If I hadn't decided to go to the airport early, she would have been waiting there for more than twenty minutes before I arrived.
  • At the travel agency yesterday, I waited for more than an hour for somebody to help me. Finally, I got up and left. If I hadn't decided to leave, I would have been sitting there forever.
Future Unreal Conditional + Continuous

RUMUS
  • If-clause: [were + present participle]
  • Result: [would be + present participle]
PENGGUNAAN

Future Unreal Conditional + Continuous dapat digunakan seperti Future Continuous yaitu untuk membayangkan situasi yang menekankan kegiatan parallel di masa yang akan datang.

CATATAN: Bentuk future kelihatannya bentuknya sama dengan bentuk present. Future menunjukkan kata-kata seperti "tomorrow," "next week" atau "in a couple of days."

Contoh Dalam if-clause:
  • If I were waiting there next week when he gets off the plane, he would be totally surprised. (But I will not be waiting there, so he won't be surprised)
  • If he were staying in that hotel next week while the conference is being held, he might be able to meet some of the key speakers and tell them about our new product. (I don't think he will be able to stay at the hotel, so he won't be able to meet anybody there)
Contoh dalam hasil:
  • If I were able to go to the train station tonight to meet Sandra, I would be standing on the platform waiting for her when she arrives. (I won't be able to go to the train station, so I will not be standing there when she arrives)
  • If you went over to Paul's house after work, he would probably be sitting there at his computer surfing the Internet. (But you won't go over)
MIXED CONDITIONALS

Berikut ini akan kami jelaskan Conditional Campuran. Perhatikan tulisan-tulisan yang bercetak tebal.
  1. Hijau = Present Unreal Conditional
  2. Biru = Past Unreal Conditional
  3. Ungu = Future Unreal Conditional
  • If I had won the lottery, I would be rich.(But I didn't win the lottery in the past and I am not rich now)
  • If I had taken French in high school, I would have more job opportunities. (But I didn't take French in high school and I don't have many job opportunities)
  • If she had been born in the United States, she wouldn't need a visa to work here. (But she wasn't born in the United States and she does need a visa now to work here)
  • If she had signed up for the ski trip last week, she would be joining us tomorrow. (But she didn't sign up for the ski trip last week and she isn't going to join us tomorrow)
  • If Mark had gotten the job instead of Joe, he would be moving to Shanghai.(But Mark didn't get the job and Mark is not going to move to Shanghai)
  • If Darren hadn't wasted his Christmas bonus gambling in Las Vegas, he would go to Mexico with us next month.(But Darren wasted his Christmas bonus gambling in Las Vegas and he won't go to Mexico with us next month)
  • If I were rich, I would have bought that Ferrari we saw yesterday.(But I am not currently rich and that is why I didn't buy the Ferrari yesterday)
  • If Sam spoke Russian, he would have translated the letter for you.(But Sam doesn't speak Russian and that is why he didn't translate the letter)
  • If I didn't have to work so much, I would have gone to the party last night.(But I have to work a lot and that is why I didn't go to the party last night)
  • If I didn't have so much vacation time, I wouldn't go with you on the cruise to Alaska next week. (But I do have a lot of vacation time and I will go on the trip next week)
  • If Cindy were more creative, the company would send her to New York to work on the new advertising campaign.(But Cindy is not creative and the company won't send her to New York to work on the new campaign)
  • If Dan weren't so nice, he wouldn't be tutoring you in math tonight. (But Dan is nice and he is going to tutor you tonight)
  • If I weren't going on my business trip next week, I would have accepted that new assignment at work.(But I am going to go on a business trip next week, and that is why I didn't accept that new assignment at work)
  • If my parents weren't coming this weekend, I would have planned a nice trip just for the two of us to Napa Valley. (But my parents are going to come this weekend, and that is why I didn't plan a trip for the two of us to Napa Valley)
  • If Donna weren't making us a big dinner tonight, I would have suggested that we go to that nice Italian restaurant.(But she is going to make us a big dinner tonight, and that is why I didn't suggest that we go to that nice Italian restaurant)
  • If I were going to that concert tonight, I would be very excited. (But I am not going to go to that concert tonight and that is why I am not excited)
  • If Sandy were giving a speech tomorrow, she would be very nervous. (But Sandy is not going to give a speech tomorrow and that is why she in not nervous)
  • If Seb didn't come with us to the desert, everyone would be very disappointed. (But Seb will come with us to the desert and that is why everyone is so happy) 
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